[1] Vostead Act:  Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all the territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

[7] “The sums of money being exchanged during the dry era proved a corrupting influence in both the federal Bureau of Prohibition and at the state and local level.”
[9] “One-fifth of the incarcerated population—or 456,000 individuals—is serving time for a drug charge.”
[11] “The militarization of American policing has occurred as a direct result of federal programs that use equipment transfers and funding to encourage aggressive enforcement of the War on Drugs ….”
[13] Docket No. FDA-2021-N-1349
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is proposing a tobacco product standard that would prohibit menthol as a characterizing flavor in cigarettes.
[17] National Academy of Sciences, U.S. Illicit Tobacco Market (2015),
[18] The Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Cigarette Taxes and Smuggling 2019
[19] U.S. Department of State, The Global Illicit Trade in Tobacco: A Threat to National Security, December 2015,
[20] U.S. Trade Representative, “Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes” (2010) (“Banning all cigarettes—or any type of cigarette favored by a large portion of U.S. smokers— could significantly increase the existing black market for cigarettes and all the attendant contraband trafficking and other illegal activity.”